Excavations – Important – Uttranchal
Kashipur (28°09′; 78°31′), Dt.Nainital, Uttaranchal
Identified by A. Cunningham with Kiu-pi-shwang-na of Hiuen Tsang, which is rendered into Sanskrit as Govisana Julien Krishna Deva of the ASI excavated the site in 1939-40 and again in 1965-6 and 1970-01.
The original structure, first noticed by Cunningham ( Phase I), apparently consisted of only a lofty platform, with two recesses. Later (phase II) the platform was encircled by a 1.85 m wide and 6 m high wall, when theintervening space served as the pradashinapatha. Finally in Phase 3 the east end was widened and another enclosure wall thrown around the extended layout, adding square platforms at the comers, and thus converting the entire complex into temple of panchayatana order.
The enclosure wall of Phase 3 had three horizontal grooves at different heights punctured at intervals with deep square holes, in each of which was found an iron clamp feature that could be seen also on the inside facing. Probably the grooves and the holes contained a framework of wooden planks and beams, which ensured the horizontality and plumb-line finish of a massive brick construction laid in mud mortar particularly because the core of the wall was filled with brickbats laid in courses. The bricks employed in the structures are not uniform and ornamental bricks, with lotus, purna-ghata and kirtti-mukha motifs, exhibiting Gupta workmanship, found reused in all phases
The Copper coins range from those of the Mathura rulers to the bull and horseman’s type, terracotta human figurines and as also an inscribed stone image of Trivikrama of 13th, all suggeststhat the Bhimagada may have reen in use till the 13th century, although the beginnings of the habitation at the site go back to the currency of the PGW.