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ASI Training Syllabus Paper04


Syllabus for PGDA

Papers: I | II  | III  | IV  | V |  VI | VII  | VIII  | IX  | X | XI | XII | TEST

Paper – IV Protohistory


Protohistory: definition, scope, terminology

Beginning of agriculture and domestication of animals and plants


Survey of early agricultural societies in West Asia , Egypt and China

Neolithic cultures of south-east Asia


Survey of Neolithic cultures with special reference to the early domestication of wheat-barley and rice cultivation

distribution, artefacts, technology, raw material, economy, question of microliths, pottery, etc in association with animal domestication

Regional distribution of sites


Northern India

Central India

Eastern and north-eastern India

Peninsular India

Chalcolithic cultures

Diagnostic features, range and chronology

Chalcolithic cultures of Baluchistan and adjacent areas

Chalcolithic cultures of Rajasthan: Ahar, Gilund, Balathal, Ojiyana, Ganeshpur-Jodhpura sites

Chalcolithic cultures of central India : Kayatha, Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Eran

Chalcolithic cultures of eastern India : Chirand, Senuwar, Pandu Rajar Dhibi, Mangalkot, Golbai Sasan

Chalcolithic sites of Ganga plain: Sohgaura, Narhan, Malhar, Lahuradewa

Chalcolithic cultures of Deccan : Jorwe, Prakash, Bahal, Nevasa, Daimabad, Chandoli, Sonegaon, Inamgaon, Kaote

Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures of South India : Piklihal, Brahmagiri, Sanganakallu, Tekkalakota, Hallur, Maski, T.Narsipur

Harappan Civilization

Terminology, history of Harappan studies in India , discovery and identification of the Harappan civilization

Emergence of the early Harappan period – Ravi , Hakra and Amri cultures

Early Harappan period, concept and evolution of terminology, characteristic features, different cultural zones during early Harappan period and distribution pattern

Important sites: Amri, Kot Diji, Harappa, Nausharo, Kulli, Mehi, Nal-Nundara, Mundigak, Rahman Dheri, Sarai Khola, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Banawali, Rakhigarhi, Baror, Bhirrana

Nature of transition from early Harappan to mature Harappan

Mature Harappan period, concept, distribution pattern and extent, characteristic features, standardisation

Town planning and settlement types, architecture

Society and social organisation

Agriculture, floral remains

Faunal remains

Trade: Inland and Foreign, Mesopotamian contacts, literary references, items traded

Writing and script, seals and sealing

Weights and linear measurements



Arts and Crafts (painting, terracotta figurines, glyptic art, bronze, steatite, faience figurines, etc)


Stone (blade and bead industry), faience, shell, ivory, stone ware, terracotta, pottery, steatite, textile,

Bronze, copper, tin, silver, gold

Survey of raw material sources of various items

Funerary customs


A survey of excavated Harappan sites: Mohenjodaro, Harappa , Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotada, Bagasra, Kuntasi, Nageshwar, Rangpur, Desalpur

Late / Post Harappan period

Distribution, different cultural zones, chronology

Jhukar-Jhangar, Cemetery H, Gandhara Grave Lustrous Red Ware

Important sites: Jhukar, Harappa , Banawali, Dholavira, Rangpur, Hulas, Alamgirpur, Bhagwanpura, Mitathal

Decline and various theories

Legacy of Harappan civilization

Ochre Coloured Pottery & copper hoards

Distribution: Bahadarabad, Bisauli, Saipai, Lalqila, Atranjikhera, Hastinapur, Jodhpura


Associated pottery and the cultural affiliation


Iron Age Cultures

Antiquity of iron in India

Painted Grey Ware culture

Distribution pattern, relation to late Harappan culture
Survey of PGW sites in Pakistan and India
Important sites: Ahichchhatra, Hastinapur, Bhagwanpura, Atranjikhera

Megalithic cultures of India

Distribution pattern, different types of megaliths, survey of various regional types of megaliths including rock-cut chambers

Habitation sites

Important sites: Burzahom, Naikund, Mahurjhari, Kunnatur, Adichanallur, Kodumanal, Brahmagiri, Maski

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