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Home > About us > Organization > Institute > Syllabus > Papers
Syllabus for PGDA

Papers:  I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII | IX | X | XI | XII | TEST

Paper - XI Chemical Preservation of Monuments and Antiquities

INTRODUCTION 

1. Ethics of conservation, restoration and preservation and its history 

BASIC CHEMISTRY 

  1. Inorganic and organic chemistry

  2. Elements and compounds 

  3. Metals (Silver, Gold, Copper, Iron, Lead) and non-metals 

  4. Alloys 

  5. Acids, bases and salts 

  6. pH, ionic and non-ionic solutions 

  7. Solubility, solvents and insolubility 

  8. Micro-climate 

CAUSES OF DECAY 

  1. Physical, chemical and biological deteriorating agencies

  2. Air pollution monitoring and control 3. Environmental parameters monitoring 4. Preventive and curative methods of control 

DOCUMENTATION 

  1. Preparation of history chart, status report 

  2. Photography, Ultraviolet, Infrared and Radiography

  3. Fakes and forgeries with case studies 

METALLIC ANTIQUITIES (GOLD, SILVER, COPPER, BRONZE, LEAD, IRON) 

  1. Ores, source of origin and metallurgy 

  2. Causes of decay and corrosion 

  3. Consolidation and treatment in the field 

  4. Laboratory treatment, preservation and general maintenance 

ORGANIC ANTIQUITIES (IVORY, BONE, HORN, LEATHER, PARCHMENT, FURS, PAPER, BIRCH BARK, PALM LEAF, WOOD AND TEXTILE) 

  1. Material and its composition

  2. Causes of decay 

  3. Treatment in field and laboratory 

  4. Fumigation, bleeding, strengthening, drying and lamination

  5. Consolidation, repairs and general maintenance 

SILICEOUS, CALCAREOUS AND ARGILLACEOUS ANTIQUITIES (STONE, SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE, MINERAL, MUD, TERRACOTTA, POTTERY, GLASS, GLAZE, FAIENCE, STUCCO) 

  1. Chemical composition 

  2. Causes of decay 

  3. Treatment in field and laboratory 

  4. Consolidation and repair 

MONUMENTS 

1. Building materials problems of stones, bricks, mortars and lime 2. Causes of decay 
3. Cleaning, consolidation and preservation 
4. Techniques chemical wash, sand blast, paper pulp, clay pack, mist and jelly techniques

PAINTINGS 

  1. Factors material structure and pigments

  2. Causes of decay 

  3. Treatment 

  4. Consolidation, restoration, repair and general maintenance 

(a) Mural Paintings 

  1. Types fresco, secco and tempera ii. Composition of ground support, etc 

  2. Factors ground, binding medium and pigment iv. Transplantation (mounting, packing and transportation) 

 
(b) Oil Paintings 

  1. Historical background, origin in Europe and India 

  2. Factors carrier, ground, pigment, binding medium, resins, oil and gums

  3. Chemical alteration of pigment and varnish

  4. Mechanical disintegration of canvas and paint layers 

(c) Miniature paper paintings and manuscripts 

  1. Factors paper, paints, pigments, dyes, medium ii. Determination of pH of paper, its folding endurance, tensile strength, percentage of cellulose 

(d) Paintings on cloth, glass, wood, ivory and leather 

  1. Factors material, pigment, dyes

CASE STUDY OF MONUMENTS AND ANTIQUARIAN REMAINS 

AUTHENTICATION OF ANTIQUITIES BY SCIENTIFIC AIDS 

ESTABLISHMENT OF FIELD LABORATORY (NECESSARY INSTRUMENTS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENTS AND CHEMICALS) 

PRACTICAL 

  1. Treatment and cleaning of metal antiquities 

  2. Treatment, cleaning and strengthening of mural paintings 

  3. Treatment of canvas and miniature paintings 

  4. Cleaning and treatment of stones, marble, plaster, etc 

  5. Laboratory procedures and determination of pH, etc 

 

 
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Syllabus for PGDA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
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