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Home > About us > Organization > Institute > Syllabus > Papers
Syllabus for PGDA

Papers:  I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII | IX | X | XI | XII | TEST

Paper - IV Protohistory


  • Protohistory: definition, scope, terminology 

  • Beginning of agriculture and domestication of animals and plants 


  • Survey of early agricultural societies in West Asia , Egypt and China

  • Neolithic cultures of south-east Asia 


  • Survey of Neolithic cultures with special reference to the early domestication of wheat-barley and rice cultivation 

  • distribution, artefacts, technology, raw material, economy, question of microliths, pottery, etc in association with animal domestication 

  • Regional distribution of sites 

    • Baluchistan 

    • Northern India 

    • Central India 

    • Eastern and north-eastern India 

    • Peninsular India 

  • Chalcolithic cultures 

  • Diagnostic features, range and chronology 

  • Chalcolithic cultures of Baluchistan and adjacent areas 

  • Chalcolithic cultures of Rajasthan: Ahar, Gilund, Balathal, Ojiyana, Ganeshpur-Jodhpura sites 

  • Chalcolithic cultures of central India : Kayatha, Navdatoli, Maheshwar, Eran 

  • Chalcolithic cultures of eastern India : Chirand, Senuwar, Pandu Rajar Dhibi, Mangalkot, Golbai Sasan 

  • Chalcolithic sites of Ganga plain: Sohgaura, Narhan, Malhar, Lahuradewa 

  • Chalcolithic cultures of Deccan : Jorwe, Prakash, Bahal, Nevasa, Daimabad, Chandoli, Sonegaon, Inamgaon, Kaote 

  • Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures of South India : Piklihal, Brahmagiri, Sanganakallu, Tekkalakota, Hallur, Maski, T.Narsipur 

  • Harappan Civilization 

    • Terminology, history of Harappan studies in India , discovery and identification of the Harappan civilization 

    • Emergence of the early Harappan period Ravi , Hakra and Amri cultures

    • Early Harappan period, concept and evolution of terminology, characteristic features, different cultural zones during early Harappan period and distribution pattern 

      • Important sites: Amri, Kot Diji, Harappa, Nausharo, Kulli, Mehi, Nal-Nundara, Mundigak, Rahman Dheri, Sarai Khola, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Banawali, Rakhigarhi, Baror, Bhirrana 

    • Nature of transition from early Harappan to mature Harappan 

    • Mature Harappan period, concept, distribution pattern and extent, characteristic features, standardisation 

      • Town planning and settlement types, architecture 

      • Society and social organisation 

      • Agriculture, floral remains 

      • Faunal remains 

      • Trade: Inland and Foreign, Mesopotamian contacts, literary references, items traded 

      • Writing and script, seals and sealing 

      • Weights and linear measurements 

      • Pottery 

      • Religion 

      • Arts and Crafts (painting, terracotta figurines, glyptic art, bronze, steatite, faience figurines, etc) 

      • Technology 

        • Stone (blade and bead industry), faience, shell, ivory, stone ware, terracotta, pottery, steatite, textile,

        • Bronze, copper, tin, silver, gold 

        • Survey of raw material sources of various items 

      • Funerary customs 

      • Chronology 

      • A survey of excavated Harappan sites: Mohenjodaro, Harappa , Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotada, Bagasra, Kuntasi, Nageshwar, Rangpur, Desalpur 

    • Late / Post Harappan period 

      • Distribution, different cultural zones, chronology 

      • Jhukar-Jhangar, Cemetery H, Gandhara Grave Lustrous Red Ware 

      • Important sites: Jhukar, Harappa , Banawali, Dholavira, Rangpur, Hulas, Alamgirpur, Bhagwanpura, Mitathal 

      • Decline and various theories 

      • Legacy of Harappan civilization 

  • Ochre Coloured Pottery & copper hoards

    • Distribution: Bahadarabad, Bisauli, Saipai, Lalqila, Atranjikhera, Hastinapur, Jodhpura 

    • Typology 

    • Associated pottery and the cultural affiliation 

    • Dating 

  • Iron Age Cultures 

    • Antiquity of iron in India 

    • Painted Grey Ware culture 

      • Distribution pattern, relation to late Harappan culture 
        Survey of PGW sites in Pakistan and India 
        Important sites: Ahichchhatra, Hastinapur, Bhagwanpura, Atranjikhera 

    • Megalithic cultures of India 

      • Distribution pattern, different types of megaliths, survey of various regional types of megaliths including rock-cut chambers 

      • Habitation sites 

      • Important sites: Burzahom, Naikund, Mahurjhari, Kunnatur, Adichanallur, Kodumanal, Brahmagiri, Maski 




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