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Home > About us > Organization > Institute > Syllabus > Papers
Syllabus for PGDA

Papers:  I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII | IX | X | XI | XII | TEST

Paper - II Application of Sciences in Archaeology

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

  1. Geological time-scale – the position of the Quaternary Period within the standard geological column; plio-pleistocene boundary  

  2. Rocks – types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, their characteristic features, origin and field structures, general information on rocks found in India 

  3. Minerals – definition and types, simple physical properties for distinguishing common minerals: colour, luster, transparency, hardness (Moh’s scale of hardness), fracture and cleavage, crystalline forms of minerals and conditions of crystal formations  

  4. General study of rock forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica 

  5. Minerals used in the manufacture of ancient objects – quartz, chalcedony, agate, jasper, flint, opal, amethyst, carnelian, mica, garnet, calcite, gypsum, talc, beryl, topaz, jade etc.  

  6. Weathering, soils and palaeosols in archaeology: various land forms, nature and causes of weathering, rate of weathering, weathering and site formation, weathering and relative dating, soil micromorphology and archaeology, loess, paleosols 

  7. Fluvial environments in archaeology: river terraces and other formations, alluvial archaeology – understanding site formation and palaeoenvironment; lacustrine deposits and sea level changes  

  8. Formation of caves and glacial deposits – moraines  

  9. Quaternary formations with special reference to India , Geochronology, Biota, Sedimentology 

  10. Pedology, volcanic ash deposits 
     

ANTHROPOLOGY 

  1. Meaning and scope of Anthropology and its relevance in archaeological studies 

  2. Physical anthropology and its application to archaeology, measurements of skull and bones, prognathism, cranial capacity, etc 
     

ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

  1. Palaeo-environmental survey of India during Pleistocene and Holocene with examples

  2. Palaeo-environmental indicators and varieties of evidences

  3. Methods of study, sample collection, different techniques applied

  4. Human – land relationships: understanding the impact of environmental change on early societies  

ARCHAEOZOOLOGY 

  1. Application of archaeozoology in reconstruction of past 

  2. Survey of animal fossil remains and archaeozoological remains from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Palaeontology, fossilization, taphonomy, diatom 

  4. Sample collection, processing, methods of analysis 
     

ARCHAEOBOTANY 

  1. Application of archaeobotany in reconstruction of the past 

  2. Survey of plant remains and related evidences from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Study of wood, grains, impressions, fossils, coprolites, phytoliths, pollens and spores 

  4. Sample collection, processing, methods of analysis, plant DNA 
     

HUMAN OSTEOLOGY AND PALAEOPATHOLOGY 

  1. Application of human osteology in construction of past and various methods of study

  2. Survey of disposal of dead from archaeological sites in India 

  3. Collection methods, methods of cleaning and reconstruction, age and sex estimation, palaeopathology; DNA polymorphism; blood residual studies 
     

QUANTITATIVE METHODS AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 

  1. Place of quantitative methods in archaeological research 

  2. Introduction to simple statistics and its application in interpreting the past 

 

 
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