ASI Training Syllabus Paper01

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Syllabus for PGDA

Papers: I | II  | III  | IV  | V |  VI | VII  | VIII  | IX  | X | XI | XII | TEST


Paper – I Principles and Methods of Archaeology

1. Introduction to Archaeology

1. Archaeology: definition, scope, relevance

2. Relation with history and science

3. Terms in archaeology: culture, assemblage

2. History of Archaeology

1. The Background: from antiquarianism to modern archaeology

2. Development of field techniques; growth of archaeology as scientific discipline

3. History of archaeology in colonial India : from 18th century to 1947

4. Archaeology in Independent India: contribution of institutions and individuals

5. Archaeological Theories: A historiographical perspective

3. Methods of Data Retrieval

1. Field discoveries: aims and methods of Explorations; Chance discoveries; Map and satellite image studies; Village to village survey, salvage archaeology, geophysical methods, sampling methods, Photogrammetry, Geographical Information System

2. Unearthing the sites: planning excavations; layout; techniques of Excavations – Vertical; Horizontal, tools and equipments

3. Excavation of sites: rock-shelter and prehistoric sites; burial; stupa; mud structures, pottery yard etc

4. Methods of recording the contexts of excavated remains; preparation of sections and plans, role of stratigraphy, three dimensional recording, site formation processes

5. Retrieval of botanical and other non-artefactual remains: Floatation technique, soil analysis, sample collection of various materials

6. Underwater archaeology: Indian studies

7. Experimental archaeology

4. Post-Excavation Analysis

1. Classification of objects / findings

2. Reconstruction of socio-economic aspects, including contextual and site catchment analysis

3. Recording methods (a) Drawing-pottery, site and antiquity, plan, elevation, section (b) Photography-indoor, elementary photochemistry (c) Surveying; instruments and their use, preparation of maps, cartography

4. Scientific analysis of excavated remains

5. Establishment of site laboratory

5. Chronology and Dating Methods

1. Stratigraphy: Principles of stratification, factors and process of formation of layers, Identification and recording of strata, Reconstruction of cultural sequence

2. Determining the chronology and periods of the excavated remains

3. Other methods of Relative chronology: Typology, Statistical studies

4. Absolute methods of dating: Radiocarbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminiscence, Pollen analysis, Fluorine test, Obsidian hydration, Dendrochronology

6. Report writing and Publication

1. Report writing

2. Preparation of text, drawings, photographs

3. Preparation of dummy, proof reading


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